Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a complex and multifactorial neurodevelopmental disorder that is listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5). It is marked by an “ongoing pattern of inattention and/ or hyperactivity-impulsivity that interferes with functioning or development.” The current estimated percentage of adults with ADHD in America is approximately 4.6%. Although the cause for developing ADHD remains unknown, research has indicated that genetic factors, environmental factors, and developmental delays may contribute to its possible development. Standard treatment for ADHD in adults, according to the Mayo Clinic, involve medication, education, skills training, and psychological counseling.
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved several different kinds of medications to treat ADHD. These medications target and treat the symptoms of ADHD, such as hyperactivity and impulsivity by increasing the levels of chemicals (neurotransmitters) in one’s brain. ADHD medications are divided into two categories: stimulants and non-stimulants. Stimulants are first-line pharmacologic agents for adult ADHD. These medications incite networks of nerve cells in the brain to work more effectively with each other, mainly by stimulating the dopamine system, to enhance brain function. Common stimulant medications prescribed to treat adults with ADHD include the following examples:
Other medications including non-stimulant medicines and certain antidepressants (e.g., bupropion) are typically second-line pharmacotherapy for adult ADHD. Although they generally work slower, these may be used as an alternative to stimulants because of health complications, if stimulants cause severe side effects, or are preferred for other reasons. Examples of non-stimulants used to treat adult ADHD include:
- Atomoxetine: which works by stimulating the norepinephrine system to reduce symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity/ impulsivity.
- Intuniv: this medication is an extended-release alpha-2 agonists, which works on a different part of the epinephrine system than atomoxetine.
As new medications are developed ADHD treatment protocols shift. Pharmacy Times, for example, recently published an article titled Viloxazine ER Shows Promising Outcomes for Adult Patients with ADHD that refers to a study concluding that viloxazine ER treatment was associated with symptom, function, and clinical improvement in adults with ADHD. This is a non-stimulant medication that belongs to the group of medicines called selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs). SNRIs work by blocking the reabsorption of the neurotransmitter’s serotonin and norepinephrine in the brain, which can assist in managing behavior. Additional non-stimulant pharmacological treatments continue to immerge. The Switzerland-based company NLS Pharma, for example, has announced positive results for its Phase II trial of mazindol CR, a nonstimulant medication in development now for treating children and adults with ADHD. Every person is different, and everyone will benefit most from a customized treatment plan that includes a blend of different approaches to ensure all nuanced needs are accommodated.
Treatment In Calabasas
Calabasas is a city in California. It is a well-known suburb of Los Angeles, located west of the San Fernando Valley and north of the Santa Monica Mountains. Over the past decade, the city of Calabasas has grown in its reputation for luxury as well as for privacy which makes it a hidden gem for residential living for society’s elite, and one of the most desirable destinations in Los Angeles County. It is also home to a plethora of highly qualified mental health clinicians providing an array of therapeutic services and treatment options.
The information above is provided for the use of informational purposes only. The above content is not to be substituted for professional advice, diagnosis, or treatment, as in no way is it intended as an attempt to practice medicine, give specific medical advice, including, without limitation, advice concerning the topic of mental health. As such, please do not use any material provided above to disregard professional advice or delay seeking treatment.