The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) lists ten standalone personality disorders. Although each personality disorder has distinct characteristics, each of the different personality disorders is categorized into one of three clusters (cluster A, cluster B, and cluster C). According to the American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP) cluster A personality disorders are characterized by eccentric, odd thinking, or behavior; cluster B personality disorders are characterized by overly emotional, dramatic, or unpredictable thinking or behavior; and cluster C personality disorders are characterized by fearful, anxious thinking or behavior. The personality disorders that make up each cluster share similar symptoms and have overlapping characteristics. Schizoid personality disorder (ScPD) belongs to cluster A, and is characterized by a “pervasive pattern of detachment from and general disinterest in social relationships and a limited range of emotions in interpersonal relationships.” The onset of schizoid personality disorder typically occurs by early adulthood, though some features may manifest during childhood. Cleveland Clinic estimates that between 3.1% to 4.9% of people in the United States suffer from schizoid personality disorder.
Signs & Symptoms
The symptoms of ScPD will impact every facet of one’s life. According to Verywell Mind, people with schizoid personality disorder typically experience:
- A sense of indifference to praise and affirmation, as well as to criticism or rejection
- Detachment from other people
- Little or no desire to form close relationships with others
- Indifference to social norms and expectations
- A preoccupation with introspection and fantasy
- Infrequent participation in activities for fun or pleasure
- Not enjoying social or family relationships
- Often described as cold, uninterested, withdrawn, and aloof
The Mayo Clinic explains that it is rare for individuals with schizoid personality disorder to experience paranoia or hallucinations.
The DSM-5 outlines the schizoid personality disorder diagnostic criteria as follows:
- Detachment from social relationships with a restricted range of expression of emotions when they are in interpersonal settings. These begin in early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts, demonstrable by four of the following:
- Neither desires nor enjoys close relationships
- Chooses solitary activities
- None or little interest in having sexual experiences
- Takes pleasure in few activities
- Lacks close friends or confidants
- Appears indifferent to praise or criticism
- Shows emotional coldness, detachment, or flattened affectivity
- Is not attributable to another medical condition; does not occur in the setting of schizophrenia, manic depression, autism spectrum disorder, or another affective disorder with psychotic features.
The cause of schizoid personality disorder remains unknown; however, studies indicate both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the development of ScPD.
Treatment In Calabasas
Calabasas is a city in California. It is a well-known suburb of Los Angeles, located west of the San Fernando Valley and north of the Santa Monica Mountains. Over the past decade, the city of Calabasas has grown in its reputation for luxury as well as for privacy which makes it a hidden gem for residential living for society’s elite, and one of the most desirable destinations in Los Angeles County. It is also home to a plethora of highly qualified mental health clinicians providing an array of therapeutic services and treatment options.
The information above is provided for the use of informational purposes only. The above content is not to be substituted for professional advice, diagnosis, or treatment, as in no way is it intended as an attempt to practice medicine, give specific medical advice, including, without limitation, advice concerning the topic of mental health. As such, please do not use any material provided above to disregard professional advice or delay seeking treatment.